Francoeurs'Wesley Gary Motor Replication section reproduced with permission from original author and as originally displayed at

Al Francoeurs Gary Motor Replication
KeelyNet 12/29/01

The following two emails describe the two photos posted to the JLN discussion list, where Al Francoeur claims to have duplicated the basic Wesley Gary neutral magnetic line effect.

From: "AL.F"
Date: Fri Dec 28, 2001 12:51 am
Subject: Wesley Magnet Motor reproduction picture's.

Hello Tim and All

After hard searching, here are the only two picture's of my Wesley permanent magnet motor that I could find, but they may be a little dark from the scanner.

They are taken when it was under construction using wood and horseshoe neodymium magnets that I already have, and other material's from the hardware store, and machine shop. I also used (roller blade) easy turning greaseless stainless steel bearing's to minimize friction on all pivot point's, and allot of sweat (labor of love) while building it.

It is the simplest version of the Wesley magnet motor that you can ask for, and it does indeed prove to be very interesting. It did not cost me much to build and if you build one, it should not cost you much either.

I used 1/2" x 1/2 x 13&7/8" long iron bar for the balanced arm that holds the shield, and various carburetor spring's with different tensions, as the picture shows.

You will have to make adjustments for your version, so make yours so as you can adjust the balancing of all the parts. At the same time on my version, the counter balance on the main rocker is heavier than the horseshoe magnet.

The repelling force from the magnet's are more than enough to raise the counter weight to its full highest point against gravity. Gravity then pulls the counter weight down, and at the same time, the horseshoe magnet attracts to the now dropped shield for the next cycle.

These picture's were taken a while ago and they show one of my other motor/generator impulse machine's,
Al's motor/generator impulse machine's,main description page
Al's motor/generator impulse machine's,diagram drawings

also, it shows some of the parts of my Interference Disc machine unassembled against the wall beside the large capacitor's, my disc machine is now mostly assembled.

My Wesley magnet motor in this picture shows the arm that transfers the rocking motion that activates the shield. If you build one, you can use stacked button magnet's, or rod neo magnet's with a keeper bar in the back so as to make your horseshoe magnet's.

Could someone please upload these two picture's into the vault. Thank you very much.

Happy New Year to Everyone.

BC, Canada

From: "AL.F"
Date: Fri Dec 28, 2001 8:22 pm
Subject: Re: [jlnlabs] Re: Wesley Magnet Motor reproduction picture's.

Hello Ben

k4zep wrote:

Hi Al,

Thanks for the post/pictures on the Wesley motor. I know it is somthing you played with on the side while your heart was with the Generators you were building. Did you actually get it to cycle again and again by itself?

Yes I did get it to cycle, but because my device was not built to exact precision machine quality, it would cycle until the timing back fired (sort of speak). Some times the rocking magnet would over shoot, when that happens it would kick real hard up and over the stationary magnet.

If your hand was in the way when this happened, it could break it. These 5 inch wide horseshoe neodymium magnets with a 1" x 1" face that I have are very strong. You cannot pull them apart when they are together unless I use strong force to slide them apart, and you cannot push them together when they are in the repelling mode, that is what the shield is for.

Because of the shield, It allows the powerful magnet's to come together with ease, like compressing and loading a very strong spring. I actually might build another one, but very precise version of it after I complete my other machine's.

I used the information that I gathered from this device to refine my zero input Impulsion permanent magnet motor. It is also related to the Interference disc generator and my large motor/generator impulse machine. Or should I say, a cross between the two machine's.

k4zep wrote;

If the answer is yes, I got to build one next week myself. Lots of questions to be answered here about the "neutral" zone and the induced magnets. Also from your experience, do you think you have to use a N/S horseshoe magnet? I have a couple dozen beautiful round ceramic magnets that are N/S on the fat sides (2"X3/8"} and would like to only use one pole in the device. Of course I could use two side by side with a soft steel backing and then have the N/S orientation.

You don't even have to use neodymium magnets, but if you want more power, use the neo's. If you do use button magnet's, stack them up so they are longer, then use a soft steel keeper bar with two magnets on the end at right angles to make a horseshoe shape. In this form you will find that your horseshoe magnet will now pick up allot more weight, as compared to just a bar magnet.

You want the flux from both the poles of the magnet doing the work, not just one pole. Also, be sure to fasten the magnets and all the other parts securely so they do not come apart. Simplicity is Natures Secret

The Gary Effect Magnetic Motor

At about the time that Laura Ingles was growing up in the Little House On The Prairie (1870's), a gentlman named Wesley Gary from Pensylvania,USA made a remarkable but little noticed discovery. According to an article in Harpers Magazine (still published today), Gary discovered a subtle ferromagnetic phenomena that allowed him to do the impossible, he constructed a machine that seemed to run with no external energy input. Such a device would normally be considered an impossible perpetual motion machine because it would seem to violate a basic law of nature, the conservation of energy.

The conservation of energy (or mass/energy) is also called the First Law of Thermodynamics. It is based on the principle of cause and effect,nothing can happen without some cause. Its seems like a self evident principle of nature. So how can any person educated in basic physics entertain the possibiltiy that a story of a self-acting motor mechanism could be true?

What if the "perpetual motion machine" was powered by a hidden source of energy ? What might such a source of energy be ? I wish to proposea possibility for you to consider, FLUCTUATION ENERGY.

Fluctuation energy is real and it is everywhere present. It has twoforms, heat energy, and the fluctuations due to the wave nature of matterand the quantized reality of space and time (zero point energy). Heat orthermal energy is the easiest to comprehend.

Another basic law of physics is the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. As applied to devices that extract energy from heat, the 2nd Law says that in orderto get work from thermal energy there must be a difference in temperature.In other words, a heat engine or other device that extracts energy fromheat must move heat energy from a higher temperature source to a lowertemperature sink.

The 2nd Law would seem to forbid any possiblity of getting useful workfrom heat energy that has a uniform temperature since there would not bea difference in temperature. However, at a small enough scale, temperaturedifferences spontaneously appear due to the statistical nature of heatenergy. Could these tiny differences in temperature be used by tiny heatengines ?

The physicist James Clerk Maxwell considered this possibility seriously.He proposed a thought experiment. He imagined two adjoining chambers filledwith air or some other gas. Between the two chambers there would be tinyholes with doors that could open and close under the control of a tinyoperators or "demons". The two chambers could be called the "hot"and "cold" chambers. When the demons would see a fast moleculeheading for the hole into the "hot" chamber they would open thedoor to let it in the "hot" chamber while excluding slow molecules.Thus the "hot" chamber would be kept at a higher temperaturethan the "cold" chamber. The difference in temperature betweenthe two chambers could be used to operate a heat engine. The idea of "Maxwell'sDemon" has been debated ever since and has not yet been resolved.Of course, today at least, Maxwell's Demon is not a practicle idea evenif tiny computers could replace the demon as door operators.

Even if tiny trap doors are impractical, could there be other possibilitiesof extracting energy from ambient heat energy. Percy Williams Bridgman,who won the Nobel Prize for his work in thermodynamics, wrote in his bookTHE NATURE OF THERMODYNAMICS, that he could not come up with a reason why some day man might not invent a device to do this. He envisioned something that might use some sort of microscopic RATCHET MECHANISM that operates on the atomic or molecular scale.

Could such atomic ratchet mechanisms already exist ? We would expect to find them in some kind of structure where atoms interact with each otherin an orderly array and also are subject to the fluctuations of heat energy.I think the most obvious candidate for consideration is ferromagnetism.

Ferromagnetism is an interaction of quadrillions of atomic magnetsthat behave in very complex ways. In fact, ferromagnetic interactions ina crystal could be considered to be a kind of computer, called a cellularautomata machine. A ferromagnetic crystal can be considered a massivelyparrallel cellular automata supercomputer. Could such a computer organizethermal fluctuation energy into useful high grade energy ? I believe itcan under some very special conditions. I think it is very possible that123 years ago Wesley Gary discovered a phenomena, that although of verysmall scale at first, could be of immense importance to the future of energy generation !

For an understanding of what Wesley Gary found read this article from1879.

This article describing Wesley Gary's invention and history is from Harper's New Monthly Magazine - March 1879 pages 601-605. The original article was retyped courtesy of John Draper. It has been checked, and the illustrations have been cleaned up from the original degraded copies ofthe old magazine article.


With an ordinary horseshoe magnet, a bit of soft iron, and a commonshingle- nail, a practical inventor, who for years has been pondering over the power lying dormant in the magnet, now demonstrates as his discovery a fact of the utmost importance in magnetic science, which has hither to escaped the observation of both scientists and practical electricians,namely, the existence of a neutral line in the magnetic field -- a linewhere the polarity of an induced magnet ceases, and beyond which it changes.With equally simple appliances he shows the practical utilization of hisdiscovery in such a way as to produce a magnetic motor, thus opening up a bewildering prospect of the possibilities before us in revolutionizing the present methods of motive power through the substitution of a wonderfully cheap and safe agent. By his achievement Mr. Wesley W. Gary has quite upsetthe theories of magnetic philosophy hitherto prevailing, and lifted magnetismout from among the static forces where science has placed it, to the position of a dynamic power. The Gary Magnetic Motor, the result of Mr. Gary's longyears of study, is, in a word, a simple contrivance which furnishes itsown power, and will run until worn out by the force of fraction, comingdangerously near to that awful bugbear, perpetual motion. The old way oflooking at magnetism has been to regard it as a force like that of gravitation,the expenditure of an amount of energy equal to its attraction being requiredto overcome it; consequently its power could not be availed of. Acceptingthis theory, it would be as idle to attempt to make use of the permanentmagnet as a motive power as to try to lift one's self by one's boot straps.But Mr. Gary, ignoring theories, toiled away at his experiments with extraordinarypatience and perseverance, and at last made the discovery which seems to necessitate the reconstruction of the accepted philosophy.

To obtain a clear idea of the Gary Magnetic Motor, it is necessary firstto comprehend thoroughly the principle underlying it -- the existence ofthe neutral line and the change in polarity,which Mr. Gary demonstratesby his horseshoe magnet, his bit of soft iron, and his common shingle-nail.

This is illustrated in Figure 1.

The letter A represents a compound magnet; B, a piece of soft ironmade fast to a lever with a pivoted joint in the centre, the iron becominga magnet by induction when in the magnetic field of the permanent magnet;C, a small nail that drops off when the iron, or induced magnet, is onthe neutral line.

By pressing the finger on the lever at D the iron is raised above theneutral line. Now let the nail be applied to the end of the induced magnetat E; it clings to it, and the point is turned inward toward the pole ofthe magnet directly below, thus indicating that the induced magnet is ofopposite polarity from the permanent one.

Now let the iron be g r adually lowered toward the magnet; the nail dropsoff at the neutral line, but it clings again when the iron is lowered belowthe line, and now its point is turned outward, or away from the magneticpole below.

In this way Mr. Gary proves that the polarity of an induced magnet ischanged by passing over the neutral line without coming in contact. Inthe experiment strips of paper are placed under the soft iron, or inducedmagnet, as shown in the figure, to prevent contact.

The neutral line is shown to extend completely around the magnet; anda piece of soft iron placed upon this line will entirely cut off the attractionof the magnet from any thing beyond. The action of this cutoff is illustratedin Fig. 2.

The letters A and B represent the one a balanced magnet and the othera stationary magnet. The magnet A is balanced on a joint, and the two magnetsare placed with opposite poles facing each other.

The letter C is a piece of thin or sheet iron, as the case may be, madefast to a lever with a joint in the centre, and so adjusted that the ironwill move on the neutral line in front of the poles of the stationary magnet.

By pressing the finger on the lever at D the iron is raised, thus withdrawingthe cut-off so that the magnet A is attracted and drawn upward by the magnetB. Remove the finger, and the cut-off drops between the poles, and, inconsequence, the magnet A drops again.

The same movement of magnets can be obtained by placing a piece of ironacross the poles of the magnet B after the magnet A has been drawn nearto it.

The magnet A will thereupon immediately fall away; but the iron canonly be balanced, and the balance not disturbed, by the action of the magnetsupon each other when the iron is on the neutral line, and does not movenearer or farther away from the magnet B.

It may not be found easy to demonstrate these principles at the firsttrials. But it should be borne in mind that it took the inventor himselffour years after he had discovered the principle to adjust the delicatebalance so as to get a machine which would go.

Now, however, that he has thought out the entire problem, and franklytells the world how he has solved it, any person at all skillful and patient,and with a little knowledge of mechanics, may soon succeed in demonstratingit for himself.

The principle underlying the motor and the method by which a motionis obtained now being explained, let us examine the inventor's workingmodels.

The beam movement is the simplest, and by it, it is claimed, the mostpower can be obtained from the magnets. This is illustrated in Fig. 3.The letter A represents a stationarymagnet, and B the soft iron, or induced magnet, fastened to a lever witha joint in the centre, and so balanced that the stationary magnet willnot quite draw it over the neutral line.

The letter C represents a beam constructed of double magnet, clampedtogether in the centre and balanced on a joint. One end is set oppositethe stationary magnet, with like poles facing each other.

The beam is so balanced that when the soft iron B on the magnet A isbelow the neutral line, it (the beam) is repelled down to the lower dottedline indicated by the letter D. The beam strikes the lever E with the pinF attached, and drives it (the Lever) against the pin G, which is attachedto the soft iron B, which is thus driven above the neutral line, whereits polarity changes.

The soft iron now attracts the beam magnet C to the upper dotted line,whereupon it (the soft iron) is again drawn down over the neutral line,and its polarity again changing, the beam magnet C is again repelled tothe lower line, continuing so to move until it is stopped or worn out.

This simply illustrates the beam movement. To gain a large amount ofpower the inventor would place groups of compound stationary magnets aboveand below the beam at each side, and the soft iron induced magnets, inthis case four in number, connected by rods passing down between the polesof the stationary magnets.

A "Pittman" connecting the beam with a fly-wheel to changethe reciprocating into a rotary motion would be the means of transmittingthe power. With magnets of great size an enormous power, he claims, couldbe obtained in this way.

One of the daintiest and prettiest of Mr. Gary's models is that illustratingthe action of a rotary motor. There is a peculiar fascination in watchingthe action of this neat little contrivance.

It is shown in Fig. 4. The letter A represents an upright magnet hungon a perpendicular shaft; B, the horizontal magnets; C, the soft iron whichis fastened to the lever D; E, the pivoted joint on which lever is balanced;and F, the thumb-screw for adjusting the movement of the soft iron.

This soft iron is so balanced that as the north pole of the uprightmagnet A swings around opposite and above the south pole of the horizontalmagnets B, it drops below the neutral line and changes its polarity.

As the magnet A turns around until its north pole is opposite and abovethe north pole of the magnets B, the soft iron is drawn upward and overthe neutral line, so that its polarity is changed again. At this pointthe polarity in the soft iron C is like that of the permanent magnets Aand B.

To start the engine the magnet A is turned around to the last-namedposition, the poles opposite like poles of the magnets B; then one poleof the magnet A is pushed a little forward and over the soft iron.

This rotary magnet is repelled by the magnets B, and also by the softiron; it turns around until the unlike poles of the permanent magnets becomeopposite; as they attract each other the soft iron drops below the neutralline, the polarity changes and becomes opposite to that of the magnetsB and like that of the magnet A; the momentum gained carries the pole ofA a little forward of B and over the soft iron, which, now being of likepolarity, repels it around to the starting-point, completing the revolution.

The magnets A and B now compound or unit their forces, and the softiron is again drawn up over the neutral line; its polarity is changed,and another revolution is made without any other force applied than theforce of the magnets. The motion will continue until some outside forceis applied to stop it, or until the machine is worn out.

The result is the same as would be obtained were the magnets B removedand the soft iron coiled with wire, and battery force applied sufficientto give it the same power that it gets from the magnets B, and a current-changerapplied to change the polarity.

The power required to work the current-changer in this case would bein excess of the power demanded to move the soft iron over the neutralline, since no power is required from the revolving magnet under thesecircumstances, it being moved by the magnets compounding when like polesare opposite each other, three magnets thus attracting the iron.

When opposite poles are near together, they attract each other and letthe iron drop below the line. The soft iron, with its lever, is finelybalanced at the joint, and has small springs applied and adjusted so asto balance it against the power of the magnets. In this working model thesoft iron vibrates less than a fiftieth of an inch.

This rotary motion is intended for use in small engines where lightpower is required, such as propelling sewing-machines, for dental work,show windows, etc..

When Wesley Gary was a boy of nine years, the electric telegraph wasin its infancy and the marvel of the day; and his father, who was a clergymanin Cortland County, New York, used to take up matters of general interestand make them the subject of an occasional lecture, among other things,giving much attention to the explanation of this new invention.

To illustrate his remarks on the subject he employed an electro-magneticmachine. This and his father's talk naturally excited the boy's curiosity,and he used to ponder much on the relations of electricity and magnetism,until he formed a shadowy idea that somehow they must become a great powerin the world.

He never lost his interest in the subject, though his crude experimentswere interrupted for a while by the work of his young manhood. When thechoice of a calling was demanded, he at first had a vague feeling thathe would like to be an artist.

"But," he says, "my friends would have thought that almostas useless and impractical as to seek for perpetual motion." At lasthe went into the woods a-lumbering, and took contracts to clear large tractsof woodland in Western and Central New York, floating the timber down thecanals to Troy.

He followed this business for several years, when he was forced to abandonit by a serious attack of inflammatory rheumatism, brought about throughexposure in the woods. And this, unfortunate as it must have seemed atthe time, proved the turning-point in his life.

His family physician insisted that he must look for some other meansof livelihood than lumbering. To the query, "What shall I do?"it was suggested that he might take to preaching, following in the footstepsof his father, and of a brother who had adopted the profession.

But this he said he could never do: he would do his best to practice,but he couldn't preach. "Invent something, then, "said the doctor."There is no doubt in my mind that your were meant for an inventor."This was really said in all seriousness, and Mr. Gary was at length persuadedthat the doctor knew him better than he did himself.

His thoughts naturally recurring to the experiments and the dreams ofhis youth, he determined to devote all his energies to the problem. Hefelt more and more confident, as he dwelt on the matter, that a great forcelay imprisoned within the magnet; that some time it must be unlocked andset to doing the world's work; that the key was hidden somewhere, and thathe might find it as well as some one else.

At Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, Mr. Gary made his first practical demonstration,and allowed his discovery to be examined and the fact published. He hadlong been satisfied, from his experiments, that if he could devise a "cut-off,"the means of neutralizing the attractive power of a stationary magnet onanother raised above it and adjusted on a pivot, unlike poles opposite,and so arrange this cut-off as to work automatically, he could producemotion in a balanced magnet.

To this end he persistently experimented, and it was only about fouryears ago that he made the discovery, the key to his problem, which isthe basis of his present motor, and upsets our philosophy.

In experimenting one day with a piece of soft iron upon a magnet hemade the discovery of the neutral line and the change of polarity. At firsthe gave little attention to the discovery of the change of polarity, notthen recognizing its significance, being absorbed entirely by the possibilitiesthe discovery of the neutral line opened up to him. Here was the pointfor his cut-off.

For a while he experimented entirely with batteries, but in September,1874, he succeeded in obtaining a movement independent of the battery.This was done on the principle illustrated in Fig. 2.

The balanced magnet, with opposite poles to the stationary magnet, wasweighted so that the poles would fall down when not attracted by the stationarymagnet.

When it was attracted up to the stationary magnet, a spring was touchedby the movement, and thus the lever with the soft iron was made to descendbetween the two magnets on the neutral line, and so cutting off the mutualattraction.

Then the balanced magnet, responding to the force of gravitation, descended,and, when down, struck an other spring, by means of which the cut-off waslifted back to its original position, and consequently the force of attractionbetween the magnets was again brought into play.

In June, the following year, Mr. Gary exhibited this continuous movementto a number of gentlemen, protecting himself by covering the cut-off withcopper, so as to disguise the real material used, and prevent any one fromrobbing him of his discovery.

The publication in the local newspaper of the performance of the littlemachine, which was copied far and wide, excited much interest. But theinventor was by no means satisfied. He had succeeded in securing a continuousmotion, but not a practical motor.

He had invented a unique plaything, but not a machine that would doman's work. So he made further experiments in one direction and another,using for a long time the battery; and it was not until some time afterhe moved to Boston (which was about two years ago) that he was convincedthat the points in the change of polarity, with which he was so littleimpressed when he first hit upon them along with his discovery of the neutralline, were the true ones to work upon.

Thereafter his progress was most rapid, and in a little while he hadconstructed working models, not only to his own satisfaction, but to thatof those experts who had the fairness to give them a critical and thoroughexamination, clearly demonstrating his ability to secure motion and power,as they had never before been secured, from self-feeding and self-actingmachines.

His claim, as he formally puts it, is this: "I have discoveredthat a straight piece of iron placed across the poles of magnet, and nearto their end, changes its polarity while in the magnetic field and beforeit comes in contact with the magnet, the fact being, however, that actualcontact is guarded against.

The conditions are that the thickness of the iron must be proportionedto the power of the magnet, and that the neutral line, or line of changein the polarity of the iron, is nearer or more distant from the magnetaccording to the power of the latter and the thickness of the former.

(The following illustrations come from Westley's Canadian patent forhis generator shown in fig. 5, this drawing is not in the Harpers articlebut aids understanding. TV )

My whole discovery is based upon this change of polarity in the iron,with or without a battery."

Power can be increased to any extent, or diminished, by the additionor withdrawal of magnets.

Mr. Gary is forty-one years old, having been born in 1837. During theyears devoted to working out his problem he has sustained himself by theproceeds from the sale of a few useful inventions made from time to timewhen he was forced to turn aside from his experiments to raise funds.

From the sale of one these inventions -- a simple little thing -- herealized something like ten thousand dollars.

The announcement of the invention of the magnetic motor came at a momentwhen the electric light excitement was at its height. The holders of gasstocks were in a state of anxiety, and those who had given attention tothe study of the principle of the new light expressed the belief that itwas only the question of the cost of power used to generate the electricityfor the light that stood in the way of its general introduction and substitutionfor gas.

A prominent electrician, who was one day examining Mr. Gary's principle,asked if in the change of polarity he had obtained electric sparks. Hesaid that he had, and the former then suggested that the principle be usedin the construction of a magneto-electric machine, and that it might turnout to be superior to anything then in use.

Acting on this suggestion, Mr. Gary set to work, and within a week hadperfected a machine which apparently proved a marvel of efficiency andsimplicity.

In all previous machines electricity is generated by revolving a pieceof soft iron in front of the poles of a permanent magnet. But to do thisat a rate of speed high enough to produce sparks in such rapid successionas to keep up a steady current of electricity suitable for the light, considerablepower is required.

In Mr. Gary's machine, however , the piece of soft iron, or armature,coiled with wire, has only to be moved across the neutral line to securethe same result.

Every time it crosses the line it changes it polarity, and every timethe polarity changes, a spark is produced. The slightest vibration is enoughto secure this, and with each vibration two sparks are produced, just aswith each revolution in the other method. An enormous volume can be securedwith an expenditure of force so diminutive that a caged squirrel mightfurnish it. (fig. 5: This also does not appear in the Harpers article butcome from Gary's Canadian Patent.)

With the employment of one of the smallest of the magnetic motors, powermay be supplied and electricity generated at no expense beyond the costof the machine.

The announcement of the invention of the magnetic motor was naturallyreceived with incredulity, although the recent achievements in mechanicalscience had prepared the public for almost anything, and it could not bevery much astonished at whatever might come next.

Some admitted that there might be something in it; others shrugged theirshoulders and said, "Wait and see;" while the scientific referredall questioners to the laws of magnetic science; and all believers in bookauthority responded, "It can't be so, because the law says it can't."

A few scientists, however, came forward, curious to see, and examinedMr. Gary's models; and when reports went out of the conversion of two orthree of the most eminent among them, interest generally was awakened,and professors from Harvard and from the Massachusetts Institute of Technologycalled, examined, and were impressed.

More promptly than the scientists, capitalists moved; and before sciencehad openly acknowledged the discovery and the principle of the invention,men of money were after Mr. Gary for the right to use the motor for variouspurposes: one wished to use it for clocks, another for sewing-machines,others for dental engines, and son on.

It is as yet too soon to speculate upon what may result from the discovery;but since it produces power in two ways, both directly by magnets and indirectlyby the generation of unlimited electricity, it would seem that it reallymight become available in time for all purposes to which electricity mightlong ago have been devoted except for the great expense involved.

Within one year after the invention of the telephone it was in practicaluse all over the world, from the United States to Japan.

And it is not incredible that in 1880 one may be holding a magneticmotor in his pocket, running the watch which requires no winding up, and,seated in a railway car, be whirling across the continent behind a locomotiveimpelled by the same agency.

Harper's New Monthly Magazine - March 1879 pages 601-605

Text retyping courtesy of John Draper

HTML and image enhancement by Tim Vaughan