Some very surprising results were obtained in receiving with a spiral Antenna lowered into d dry well. Slightly different results were obtained when there was water in well.
One result was the absence of static on the receiver even with the distance European Stations received in the United States with a lightening storm directly overhead.
(Wonder what AM an short wave DXERS could get with a set up like this TODAY. During the period of the first World War just when radio was taking off the Americans made all amateurs remove their
tall radio masts bringing their hobby to a stand still for the duration of the war.
However one amateur by the name of James Harris Rogers tried something different and buried his receiving and transmitting antennas in the ground .
His basic set up consisted of long lengths of wire buried in the ground about three feet deep and ranging in length of 200 to 1000 feet of 12 to 16 gauge B and S gauged weather proofed or rubber covered copper conductor (although I believe
modern wiring of similar gauge should still give the same results)
Apparently the length of buried dictates the wavelength and frequency to be received. .
Distances up to fifty miles had been covered very successfully in transmitting with a spark gap transmitter
This was used apparently in conjunction with the receiving equipment as used in first diagram
The spiral aerial was placed well down in the well with metal plates as shown.
the metal plates about one yard square each are placed in the ground nearby to the well.
The spiral antenna was mounted so that it could be rotated in any direction at bottom of well
It could be interesting to see if modern communication could be improved by using this method of transmission.
The above shows a layout of the buried wires with a bipolar switch to connect up various wire lines of differencing length and in differing directions.
It may be interesting to see if the US military are using this technology to communicate with their submarines using ULF
and buried antennas from their military bases.
The greater the depth the better but good results were obtained from depths of three feet , and where there was lake wire was dropped straight into it and excellent results were also apparently received as well
Apparently using one proper earth and one long buried lead gave the directional ability as with two wires in the same direction.
Insulated aerial lead wire buried in a continuous section of iron pipe
in some instances pipes were placed together with rubber jackets to join shorter sections of pipe to make the distance.
It might be interesting to see if would work with PVC piping ,copper would work but would tend to be expensive however..
A simple projected to demonstrate the ability of the earth to be a conductor.
Below is a simple circuit diagram of a simple morse code transmitter and reciever site using only one line with two or more stations that any one should be able to construct.
The transformers in circuit is simply 1/2" about three inches long a bolt with two coils of same wire diameter wound on a simple bolt with the the primary to secondary ratio of 1:2 or more
The battery buzzer can be from any where but the one I used was from a pedal bicycle. You could also replace the buzzer with tranistor oscillator.
The head phones could be a crystal earpiece or magnetic earpiece but a better one is from old radio set
that were once available from war surplus stores.
The earth at both ends can be copper or metal pipes buried as deep as you can in the soil.( I would suggest not using the earth connected to your house power supply. )
The wire between stations can be made of any thing but an insulated heavier gauge would be better.
To send press key and send a morse code signal. By pressing the key the buzzer will allow you to hear your signal and allow a pulsating signal to go through the transformer winding and along to next the station or stations via the connecting wire and into the receiving station headphones as well as yours. To avoid confusion the receiving station will need to have their morse key open.. You may also hear an earth noise or hum in your earphone . this could be due to the electrical supply company also using the earth for a return wire for their AC power generation
Hope you have Fun and you might like to add a voice facility to this set up although I havent't tried to.
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