How the Great Pyramid At Giza was built, and Why!
Jet and Subterranean Chamber


There are many more refinements to the simple diagram above and the animated image that are discussed in the book Pharaoh's Pump.  Space constraints do not allow for all the text and images that I would like to add to this site.  The complete information is located in the book Pharaoh's Pump!  This chamber would coincide with a compression chamber in a water ram pump.  The kinetic energy of the moving water down the lower diagonal causes the water to compress air in the subterranean chamber.  When the air cannot be compressed any more the water stops moving in the lower diagonal.  This causes the check valve in the top of the lower diagonal to close.  The compressed air would then push water up to the lower part of the Grand Gallery helping to raise that column of water. To get a better understanding of how the two passages that lead down to this chamber from a water pump go to How the Great Pyramid was Built.
Below are excerpts form the book.

There are two subterranean shafts. One is a rectangular symmetrical diagonal, while the other is about 30 inches square with rounded corners, and follow an irregular course downward.
From ground level, the mouths of these shafts are about 160 feet apart, but as they descend they come closer together and meet at a depth of 89 feet; the result is the formation of a bastard U tube.
The junction can be defined as a lateral connection.  The lateral is short, and in a horizontal position.  At one end of it is a ENLARGED ELL, while; at the other end, where it joins the diagonal, is a nozzle or jet formation.
It can truly be called a jet because the aperture is smaller in cross-section than the lateral.  In fact, it is about one-third smaller. — It constricts the flow through the lateral, therefore, water flowing through the lateral. — It squirts, like a nozzle. The lateral enters the lower diagonal, at an acute angle of 30 degrees. Its mean length is 6 ¾ feet long. Eight feet long on one side and 5½ feet on the other.  The ceiling appears to be arched, the walls vertical, and the floor flat, but the junction of the walls and floor is rounded.
Constriction of the jet is formed by its odd connection with the lower diagonal.  The opening is reduced by the triangular member marked “LOWER DIAGONAL”.
It is unique as a jet; because it lacks a certain symmetry, it measures 3 feet across the top.  One side is also 3 feet high, while the other is 4 inches, and conforms to the pitch of the diagonal.
The jet has another odd mechanical feature, or element.
Within the jet, a spiral hump is found.  It is carved in the living rock.  This hump emerges from one wall near the bottom, arches up over the top, and disappears in the opposite wall.  Water
flowing down the lateral connection and through the jet, will start to spin or twist in a counter clockwise direction.
After experimenting with a model of this ancient pump, I have come to the conclusion, that this spiral hump, had a dual function; quite unique in the field of hydraulic engineering.  Briefly, the function was this; it acts as a shut-off means in the lower diagonal, when the flow is reversed by the creation of a vacuum.  Such a flow keeps the water in the lower diagonal, in a static state.  It keeps 85 tons of water  motionless.  The reason it acts as a shut-off, is the fact that water cannot flow in two directions in the same pipe at the same time.
The angle of junction of the lateral is 60°.  The spiral hump about 30°.  So the reversed flow must take a 90° turn, when it leaves the compression chamber, and enters the lateral.  Thus, the pressure in the compression chamber is lowered, while 85 tons of water in the lower diagonal remains motionless.
As this cycle nears its final phase, and at least stops, the static column begins to move, all hell breaks loose; because the shut-off means has been holding back some 85 tons of water, while at the same time the pressure in the compression was being reduced; thus, offering very little resistance to the moving column in the lower diagonal.
What man can calculate the gaseous cushion pressure per square inch in the compression chamber, when 85 tons of moving water is doing the compression?  Then add to this the resistance to flow has been reduced.
Some observers write, that the rectangular symmetrical diagonal shaft is wider than high, while other say the opposite, but all agree that it is 3 feet 5½ inches, by 3 feet 11 ½ inches.  Perring shows it higher than wide.  Perring is correct.
This section is 220 feet long; and descends at an angle of 26 degrees, 41 minutes. — So perfect is its alignment; that one can sit at the bottom and see the sky. — And being rectangular in form, the friction of flow is reduced to a minimum.

 “Liquids and gases flow free, that is; with less friction through a square tube, than that of any other shape.”
If this tube were filled with water, it would hold 88 tons.  The static pressure at the base would be about 40 pounds per square inch; because its depth is 100 feet.
This rectangular, precision-cut shaft is the supply tube for the pump. — It is where the water comes in.  It is the intake.
Henceforth, this shaft will be called the LOWER DIAGONAL.
The diagonal shaft ends, 23 feet below the jet.  The end of the diagonal is joined by a rectangular shaft, smaller in cross-sectional area than the diagonal, and cut in a horizontal position.  (I’ll call it the short tube.)
This short tube leads to a huge rectangular chamber with the entrance in the precise northeast corner of the chamber.
This chamber is 100 feet below the pavement of the pyramid.  It is 46 feet long, 27 feet wide, 5 ½ feet high at the west end, while at the east end, the height varies from 11 to 13 feet.
The floor slopes downward from west to east.  Water in it will drain toward the entrance.
The ceiling is truly rectangular in shape, while the north, east, and south walls are trapezoidal.  The floor is lop-sided.
This huge chamber, cut in the solid limestone is airtight. — Add a few thousand gallons of water, and the imprisoned air will form an air cushion, with the air compressed against the ceiling. — This chamber then becomes, an air compression chamber, capable of holding compressed air. — Air in it can be compressed to the nth degree, and then some. — here is an air compression chamber — Early 2,000 B.C. MODEL.
Near the center of the floor is a dished-out, saucer-like cutting, about 20 feet in diameter.  (I’ll call it the saucer.)  Near the middle of the saucer is a pit, 7 feet in diameter, and 9 feet deep; fashioned like a malformed tumbler, or cup.
If a mechanical means can be devised, whereby water in the lower diagonal can be caused to move, water will enter this chamber at an extremely high velocity.
When water enters the orifice its current sets up a rotary motion in the saucer, while a whirl-pool develops in the pit.  The action reduces the water pressure at the orifice, because the whirling water is rotating in the same direction as the stream entering the chamber.  This action increases the velocity of the water flowing down the lower diagonal, because the pressure at the orifice is reduced.  Thus, does the whirlpool augment the force of gravity.
I have experimented with a small model of this pump, and for a long time could not account for the violent reaction of this particular part, because the only expenditure of energy, was my breath.  When I blew down the jet-bowl tube, a got a discharge of about half gallon of water, and some of it traveled a distance of 22 feet.  It was some time before I realized that a whirlpool which I could not see, had developed in the well, and was at work, and particularly responsible for his violent action.

I made another model without the well and it did not work at all. — I was quite sure that I had rediscovered a new force; a whirlpool in an airtight tank, to do work.  The horizontal connection which joins the lower diagonal with its compression chamber is, 27 feet long, 3 feet high, and 2 feet 9 inches wide.  It is 5.7 square feet smaller in cross section, than the diagonal. —The junction of the tubes is abrupt. — The top and sides of the diagonal are cut at right angles to its pitch, and form three distinct edges. — In short, this junction forms a contraction of the diagonal.
Bernoulli discovered, that if an orifice of a tube had clean sharp edges, and the tube was no longer than three times its cross-section dimension, that the discharge from such a tube will be increased by more than 25%.  This is known as the principle of the standard short tube.
The horizontal connection which joins the lower diagonal with its compression chamber is nearly square in cross-section, and its length is almost precisely 9 times this dimension.  This variance of proportion may be accounted for, by the fact that the ancients were working with a hundred foot head of water.  The clean sharp edges form three sides of the junction where the horizontal and the lower diagonal meet, although some of its clean sharp edges have taken a terrific beating from souvenir hunters.
While Bernoulli’s Theorem calls for a tube 3 times longer than its diameter, here is an application where it is more than 9 times longer.  This variance of proportion may be accounted for, by the fact; that the ancients were working with a one hundred foot head of water, and a volume of 80 tons, plus — Too, I suspect that the increased discharge exceeded the accepted maximum of 33%  this would seem to indicate that the ancient hydraulic engineers know more about Bernoulli’s Theorem, than Bernoulli did; because this short tube is 27 feet long.
 One thing more about this tube. — Seventeen feet beyond the clean sharp edges is a cub-like cell.  It is six feet square on plan, and 4 ½ feet high.
 I deduced that the cell is the whirlpool starter; and that its function was to overcome the inertia of mass in the compression chamber and start the whirlpool spinning.
 It worked this way: air trapped at its tiny ceiling formed an air cushion, and the instant a downward flow occurred, the air pressure in the cell became unbelievably high, and seeking relief moved the water between the cell and the chamber, and thus; initiated the action, which a moment later developed into a whirlpool. — A model worked better WITH this cell than without it.
 Since, the subject of the moment, is the function of the underground cuttings, it is appropriate at this time, to mention a mechanical element, which apparently has no function, although it may have a function; which is elusive at present.
 The mechanical element? — A dead end shaft, cut in the south-eastern corner of the compression chamber.
 It is 52 feet 9 inches long, 2 feet 7 inches wide, and 2 feet, 5 inches high.
 Its direction is from true north to south.
 Its position is horizontal.
 It lies at the lowest corner of the chamber.
 Its position suggests, that it could be a drain: but it dead ends in the rock.  Even though it is 105 feet below the base of the building; it is still high enough from the outside to function as a drain.
 Apparently this dead end has never been examined; with the idea in mind, that it may be a drain duct.

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